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World-Time.ru - Материалы - Международные Организации
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Международные организации
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African Development Bank (AfDB) AfDB note - its predecessor was Organization of African Unity (OAU) established - 9 September 1999 aim - to promote economic and social development regional members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe nonregional members - (24) Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
African Union (AU) AU note - replaces Organization of African Unity (OAU) established - 8 July 2001 aim - to achieve greater unity among African States; to defend states' integrity and independence; to accelerate political, social, and economic integration; to encourage international cooperation; to promote democratic principles and institutions members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara), Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP Group) ACP Group established - 6 June 1975 aim - to manage their preferential economic and aid relationship with the EU members - (79) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated States of Micronesia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) OPANAL note - acronym from Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL) established - 14 February 1967 under the Treaty of Tlatelolco; effective - 25 April 1969 on the 11th ratification aim - to encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy and prohibit nuclear weapons members - (33) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela
Andean Community of Nations (CAN) CAN note - formerly known as the Andean Group (AG), the Andean Parliament, and most recently as the Andean Common Market (Ancom) established - 26 May 1969; present name established 1 October 1992; effective - 16 October 1969 aim - to promote harmonious development through economic integration members - (5) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela associate members - (5) Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay observers - (2) Mexico, Panama
Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA) ABEDA note - also known as Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA) established - 18 February 1974; effective - 16 September 1974 aim - to promote economic development members - (17 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation Organization; note - these are all the members of the Arab League excluding Comoros, Djibouti, Somalia, Yemen
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) AFESD established - 16 May 1968 aim - to promote economic and social development members - (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq (suspended 1993), Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia (suspended 1993), Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) AMU established - 17 February 1989 aim - to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab states of northern Africa members - (5) Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia
Arab Monetary Fund AMF established - 27 April 1976; effective - 2 February 1977 aim - to promote Arab cooperation, development, and integration in monetary and economic affairs members - (21 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
Arctic Council Arctic Council established - 18 September 1996 aim - to address the common concerns and challenges faced by Arctic governments and the people of the Arctic; to protect the Arctic environment members - (8) Canada, Denmark (Greenland, Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, US permanent participants - (6) Aleut International Association, Arctic Athabaskan Council, Gurch'in Council International, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Russian Association of Indigenous People of the North, Saami Council observers - (5) France, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, UK
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) ARF established - 25 July 1994 aim - to foster constructive dialogue and consultation on political and security issues of common interest and concern members - (26) Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, China, East Timor, EU, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, US, Vietnam
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC established - 7 November 1989 aim - to promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin members - (21) Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, US, Vietnam observers - (3) Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat
Asian Development Bank AsDB established - 19 December 1966 aim - to promote regional economic cooperation members - (47) Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, East Timor, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam nonregional members - (19) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US
Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN established - 8 August 1967 aim - to encourage regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation among the non-Communist countries of Southeast Asia members - (10) Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam dialogue partners - (12) Australia, Canada, China, EU, India, Japan, South Korea, NZ, Pakistan, Russia, US, UNDP observers - (1) Papua New Guinea
Australia Group Australia Group established - June 1985 aim - to consult on and coordinate export controls related to chemical and biological weapons members - (40) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US
Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty ANZUS established - 1 September 1951; effective - 29 April 1952 aim - to implement a trilateral mutual security agreement, although the US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986; Australia and the US continue to hold annual meetings members - (3) Australia, NZ, US
Baltic Assembly BA established - 12 May 1990 aim - to thoroughly discuss various cooperation issues between Baltic states members - (3) Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Bank for International Settlements BIS established - 20 January 1930; effective - 17 March 1930 aim - to promote cooperation among central banks in international financial settlements members - (55) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Central Bank, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US; note - Serbia and Montenegro have separate central banks; their links with BIS are currently under review
Bay of Bengal Iniative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Coopertion BIMSTEC established - June 1997 aim - to foster socio-economic cooperation among members members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand
Benelux Economic Union Benelux note - acronym from Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg established - 3 February 1958; effective - 1 November 1960 aim - to develop closer economic cooperation and integration members - (3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands
Big Seven Big Seven note - membership is the same as the Group of 7 established - 1975 aim - to discuss and coordinate major economic policies members - (7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK) plus the US
Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone BSEC established - 25 June 1992 aim - to enhance regional stability through economic cooperation members - (12) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine; note - Macedonia is in the process of joining observers - (16) Austria, Belarus, Black Sea Commission, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Energy Charter Secretariat, France, Germany, International Black Sea Club, Israel, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Tunisia, US; note - Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia have applied for observer status
Caribbean Community and Common Market Caricom established - 4 July 1973; effective - 1 August 1973 aim - to promote economic integration and development, especially among the less developed countries members - (15) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago associate members - (5) Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
Caribbean Development Bank CDB established - 18 October 1969; effective - 26 January 1970 aim - to promote economic development and cooperation regional members - (20) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Venezuela nonregional members - (5) Canada, China, Germany, Italy, UK
Central African Customs and Economic Union UDEAC see Monetary and Economic Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)
Central African States Development Bank BDEAC note - acronym from Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale established - 3 December 1975 aim - to provide loans for economic development members - (10) African Development Bank (AfDB), Cameroon, Central African States Bank (BEAC), Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Kuwait
Central American Bank for Economic Integration BCIE note - acronym from Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico established - 13 December 1960 signature of Articles of Agreement; 31 May 1961 began operations aim - to promote economic integration and development members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua nonregional members - (5) Argentina, China, Colombia, Mexico, Spain
Central American Common Market CACM established - 13 December 1960, collapsed in 1969, reinstated in 1991 aim - to promote establishment of a Central American Common Market members - (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua; note - Panama, although not a member, pursues full regional cooperation
Central European Initiative CEI note - evolved from the Quadrilateral Initiative and the Hexagonal Initiative established - 11 November 1989 as the Quadrilateral Initiative, 27 July 1991 became the Hexagonal Initiative, July 1992 its present name was adopted aim - to form an economic and political cooperation group for the region between the Adriatic and the Baltic Seas members - (18) Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine
Colombo Plan CP established - May 1950 proposal was adopted; 1 July 1951 commenced full operations aim - to promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific members - (25) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, US, Vietnam
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa COMESA note - formerly known as Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa (PTA) established - 5 November 1993 aim - recognizing, promoting and protecting fundamental human rights, commitment to the principles of liberty and rule of law, maintaining peace and stability through the promotion and strengthening of good neighborliness, commitment to peaceful settlement of disputes among member states members - (20) Angola, Burundi, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Commonwealth of Independent States CIS established - 8 December 1991; effective - 21 December 1991 aim - to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism for the orderly dissolution of the USSR members - (12) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Coordinating Committee on Export Controls COCOM established in 1949 to control the export of strategic products and technical data from member countries to proscribed destinations; members were: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US; abolished 31 March 1994; COCOM members established a new organization, the Wassenaar Arrangement, with expanded membership on 12 July 1996 that focuses on nonproliferation export controls as opposed to East-West control of advanced technology
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance CEMA note - also known as CMEA or Comecon established 25 January 1949 to promote the development of socialist economies and abolished 1 January 1991; members included Afghanistan (observer), Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with USSR), Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua (observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia (associate
Council of Arab Economic Unity CAEU established - 3 June 1957; effective - 30 May 1964 aim - to promote economic integration among Arab nations members - (10 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
Council of Europe CE established - 5 May 1949; effective - 3 August 1949 aim - to promote increased unity and quality of life in Europe members - (46) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK observers - (5) Canada, Holy See, Japan, Mexico, US
Council of the Baltic Sea States CBSS established - 6 March 1992 aim - to promote cooperation among the Baltic Sea states in the areas of aid to new democratic institutions, economic development, humanitarian aid, energy and the environment, cultural programs and education, and transportation and communication members - (12) Denmark, Estonia, EC, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden observers - (7) France, Italy, Netherlands, Slovakia, Ukraine, UK, US
Council of the Entente Entente established - 29 May 1959 aim - to promote economic, social, and political coordination members - (5) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo
East African Development Bank EADB established - 6 June 1967; effective - 1 December 1967 aim - to promote economic development members - (3) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
East Asia Summit EAS established - 14 December 2005 aim - to promote cooperation in political and security issues; to promote development, financial stability, energy security, economic integration and growth; to eradicate poverty and narrow the development gap in East Asia, and to promote deeper cultural understanding members - (16) Australia, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, NZ, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa CEMAC note - was formerly the Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) established - 8 December 1964; effective - 1 January 1966 aim - to promote the establishment of a Central African Common Market members - (6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon
Economic and Monetary Union EMU note - an integral part of the European Union; also known as the European Economic and Monetary Union established - 1-2 December 1969 (proposed at summit conference of heads of government; 7 February 1992 (Maastricht Treaty signed) aim - to promote a single market by creating a single currency, the euro; timetable - 2 May 1998: European exchange rates fixed for 1 January 1999; 1 January 1999: all banks and stock exchanges begin using euros; 1 January 2002: the euro goes into circulation; 1 July 2002 local currencies no longer accepted members - (12) Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain
Economic and Social Council ECOSOC established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN; includes five regional commissions (Economic Commission for Africa, Economic Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) and nine functional commissions (Commission for Social Development, Commission on Human Rights, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Commission on the Status of Women, Commission on Population and Development, Statistical Commission, Commission on Science and Technology for Development, Commission on Sustainable Development, and Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice) members - (54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries CEPGL note - acronym from Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs established - 20 September 1976 aim - to promote regional economic cooperation and integration members - (3) Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda; note - organization collapsed because of fighting in 1998; reactivated in 2006
Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS established - 28 May 1975 aim - to promote regional economic cooperation members - (15) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
Economic Cooperation Organization ECO established - 27-29 January 1985 aim - to promote regional cooperation in trade, transportation, communications, tourism, cultural affairs, and economic development members - (10) Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Eurasian Economic Community EAEC established - May 2001
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council EAPC note - began as the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC); an extension of NATO established - 8 November 1991; effective - 20 December 1991 aim - to discuss cooperation on mutual political and security issues members - (46) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development EBRD established - 8-9 January 1990 (proposals made); 15 April 1991 (bank inaugurated) aim - to facilitate the transition of seven centrally planned economies in Europe (Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, former USSR, and former Yugoslavia) to market economies by committing 60% of its loans to privatization members - (63) Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, EC, European Investment Bank (EIB), Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan
European Community EC established 8 April 1965 to integrate the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market), and to establish a completely integrated common market and an eventual federation of Europe; merged into the European Union (EU) on 7 February 1992; member states at the time of merger were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK
European Free Trade Association EFTA established - 4 January 1960; effective - 3 May 1960 aim - to promote expansion of free trade members - (4) Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland
European Investment Bank EIB established - 25 March 1957; effective - 1 January 1958 aim - to promote economic development of the EU and its predecessors, the EEC and the EC members - (25) Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK
European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization Conseil Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire established - 1 July 1953; effective - 29 September 1954 aim - to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only members - (20) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK observers - (8) European Commission, India, Israel, Japan, Russia, Turkey, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), US
European Space Agency ESA established - 31 May 1975 aim - to promote peaceful cooperation in space research and technology members - (17) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK cooperating states - (4) Canada, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania
European Union EU
Food and Agriculture Organization FAO established - 16 October 1945 aim - to raise living standards and increase availability of agricultural products; a UN specialized agency members - (190) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Brunei, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, and Singapore (187 total); plus Cook Islands, EC, and Niue
Franc Zone FZ note - also known as Conference des Ministres des Finances des Pays de la Zone Franc established - 1964 aim - to form a monetary union among countries whose currencies were linked to the French franc members - (16) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo
Front Line States FLS established to achieve black majority rule in South Africa; has since gone out of existence; members included Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT see the World Trade Organization (WTO)
General Confederation of Trade Unions GCTU established - 16 April 1992 aim - to consolidate trade union actions to protect citizens' social and labor rights and interests, to help secure trade unions' rights and guarantees, and to strengthen international trade union solidarity members - (11) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Group of 10 G-10 note - also known as the Paris Club; includes the wealthiest members of the IMF who provide most of the money to be loaned and act as the informal steering committee; name persists despite increased membership established - October 1962 aim - to coordinate credit policy members - (11) Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US observers - (4) BIS, EU, IMF, OECD
Group of 11 G-11 note - also known as the Cartagena Group established in 21-22 June 1984, in Cartagena, Colombia, aim was to provide a forum for largest debtor nations in Latin America; members were: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
Group of 15 G-15 note - byproduct of the Nonaligned Movement; name persists despite increased membership established - September 1989 aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing nations; to act as the main political organ for the Nonaligned Movement members - (19) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Venezuela, Zimbabwe
Group of 2 G-2 informal term that came into use about 1986; to facilitate bilateral economic cooperation between the two most powerful economic giants; members were Japan, US
Group of 24 G-24 established - 1 August 1989 aim - to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America within the IMF members - (24) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela observers - (1) China
Group of 3 G-3 established - September 1990 aim - mechanism for policy coordination members - (3) Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela
Group of 5 G-5 established - 22 September 1985 aim - to coordinate the economic policies of five major noncommunist economic powers members - (5) France, Germany, Japan, UK, US
Group of 6 G-6 note - also known as Groupe des Six Sur le Desarmement; not to be confused with the Big Six established - 22 May 1984 aim - to achieve nuclear disarmament members - (6) Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania
Group of 7 G-7 note - membership is the same as the Big Seven established - 22 September 1985 aim - to facilitate economic cooperation among the seven major noncommunist economic powers members - (7) Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus Canada and Italy
Group of 77 G-77 established - 15 June1964; October 1967 first ministerial meeting aim - to promote economic cooperation among developing countries; name persists in spite of increased membership members - (130 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization
Group of 8 G-8 established - October 1975 aim - to facilitate economic cooperation among the developed countries (DCs) that participated in the Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), held in several sessions between December 1975 and 3 June 1977 members - (8) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, US
Group of 9 G-9 established - NA aim - to discuss matters of mutual interest on an informal basis members - (9) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Sweden
Gulf Cooperation Council GCC note - also known as the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf established - 25 May 1981 aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic, social, political, and military affairs members - (6) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE
Indian Ocean Commission InOC established - 21 December 1982 aim - to organize and promote regional cooperation in all sectors, especially economic members - (5) Comoros, France (for Reunion), Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles
Inter-American Development Bank IADB note - also known as Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) established - 8 April 1959; effective - 30 December 1959 aim - to promote economic and social development in Latin America members - (47) Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
Inter-Governmental Authority on Development IGAD note - formerly known as Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) established - 15-16 January 1986 as the Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development; revitalized - 21 March 1996 as the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development aim - to promote a social, economic, and scientific community among its members members - (7) Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda
Inter-Parliamentary Union IPU established - 1889 aim - fosters contacts among parliamentarians, considers and expresses views of international interest and concern with the purpose of bringing about action by parliaments and parliamentarians, contributes to the defense and promotion of human rights, contributes to better knowledge of representative institutions members - (148) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazahstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Somalia, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members - (7) Andean Parliament, Central American Parliament, Community Parliament of the Economic Community of West African States, East African Legislative Assembly, European Parliament, Latin American Parliament, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA established - 26 October 1956; effective - 29 July 1957 aim - to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy members - (145) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IBRD note - also known as the World Bank established - 22 July 1944; effective - 27 December 1945 aim - to provide economic development loans; a UN specialized agency members - (185) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Cuba, North Korea, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Nauru, and Tuvalu
International Chamber of Commerce ICC established - 1919 aim - to promote free trade and private enterprise and to represent business interests at national and international levels members - (91 national committees) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Caribbean, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO established - 7 December 1944; effective - 4 April 1947 aim - to promote international cooperation in civil aviation; a UN specialized agency members - (189) includes all UN member countries except Dominica, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, and Tuvalu (188 total); plus Cook Islands
International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti MICAH established 17 December 1999 to promote respect for human rights; members included Argentina, Benin, Canada, France, India, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, US; closed 2001
International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC established - 17 February 1863 aim - to provide humanitarian aid in wartime members - (15-25 individuals) all Swiss nationals
International Court of Justice ICJ note - also known as the World Court established - 3 February 1946 superseded Permanent Court of International Justice aim - primary judicial organ of the UN members - (15 judges) elected by the UN General Assembly and Security Council to represent all principal legal systems
International Criminal Court ICCt established - 11 April 2002 aim - to hold all individuals and countries accountable to international laws of conduct; to specify international standards of conduct; to provide an important mechanism for implementing these standards; to ensure that perpetrators are brought to justice members (countries that have ratified the treaty) - (104) Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia; note - Comoros and Saint Kitts and Nevis became full members on 1 November 2006 signatory states (countries that have signed, but not ratified, the treaty) - (39) Algeria, Angola, Armenia, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chile, Cote d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Egypt, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Iran, Jamaica, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Moldova, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Philippines, Russia, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Sudan, Syria, Thailand, Ukraine, UAE, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Zimbabwe
International Criminal Police Organization Interpol established - September 1923 set up as the International Criminal Police Commission; 13 June 1956 constitution modified and present name adopted aim - to promote international cooperation among police authorities in fighting crime members - (186) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe subbureaus - (11) American Samoa, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Macau, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands
International Development Association IDA established - 26 January 1960; effective - 24 September 1960 aim - to provide economic loans for low-income countries; UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate members - (166) Part I - (27 developed countries) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US Part II - (139 less developed countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
International Energy Agency IEA established - 15 November 1974 aim - to promote cooperation on energy matters, especially emergency oil sharing and relations between oil consumers and oil producers; established by the OECD members - (27) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies IFRCS note - formerly known as League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) established - 5 May 1919 aim - to organize, coordinate, and direct international relief actions; to promote humanitarian activities; to represent and encourage the development of National Societies; to bring help to victims of armed conflicts, refugees, and displaced people; to reduce the vulnerability of people through development programs members - (185 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization observers - (2) Eritrea and Tuvalu
International Finance Corporation IFC established - 25 May 1955; effective - 24 July 1956 aim - to support private enterprise in international economic development; a UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate members - (177) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Brunei, Cuba, Guinea, North Korea, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Montenegro, Nauru, Qatar, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Suriname, Tuvalu
International Fund for Agricultural Development IFAD established - November 1974 aim - to promote agricultural development; a UN specialized agency members - (165) Category I - (23 industrialized aid contributors) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US Category II - (12 petroleum-exporting aid contributors) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela Category III - (130 aid recipients) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Niue, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Serbia (suspended since 1992), Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
International Hydrographic Organization IHO note - name changed from International Hydrographic Bureau on 22 September 1970 established - June 1919; effective - June 1921 aim - to train hydrographic surveyors and nautical cartographers to achieve standardization in nautical charts and electronic chart displays; to provide advice on nautical cartography and hydrography; to develop the sciences in the field of hydrography and techniques used for descriptive oceanograrphy members - (76) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (suspended), Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic (suspended), Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname (suspended), Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela
International Labor Organization ILO established - 28 June 1919 set up as part of Treaty of Versailles; 11 April 1919 became operative; 14 December 1946 affiliated with the UN aim - to deal with world labor issues; a UN specialized agency members - (179) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Bhutan, Brunei, North Korea, Liechtenstein, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Nauru, Palau, Tonga, and Tuvalu; note - includes the following dependencies: Netherlands (Netherlands Antilles and Aruba)
International Maritime Organization IMO note - name changed from Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) on 22 May 1982 established - 6 March 1948 set up as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization; effective - 17 March 1958 aim - to deal with international maritime affairs; a UN specialized agency members - (167) includes all UN member countries except Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Belarus, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Mali, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niger, Palau, Rwanda, Tajikistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Zambia associate members - (3) Faroe Islands, Hong Kong, Macau
International Monetary Fund IMF established - 22 July 1944; effective - 27 December 1945 aim - to promote world monetary stability and economic development; a UN specialized agency members - (184) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Cuba, North Korea, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Nauru, Tuvalu; note - includes the following dependencies or areas of special interest: China (Hong Kong and Macau), Netherlands (Netherlands Antilles and Aruba)
International Olympic Committee IOC established - 23 June 1894 aim - to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic games: 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy; 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China; 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada; 2012 Summer Olympics in London, UK National Olympic Committees - (203 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization
International Organization for Migration IOM note - established as Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (ICM) in November 1980; current name adopted 14 November 1989 established - 5 December 1951 aim - to facilitate orderly international emigration and immigration members - (120) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe observers - (19) Bhutan, Burundi, China, Cuba, Ethiopia, Guyana, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Mozambique, Namibia, Papua New Guinea, Russia, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Somalia, Turkmenistan, Vietnam
International Organization for Standardization ISO established - February 1947 aim - to promote the development of international standards with a view to facilitating international exchange of goods and services and to developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity members - (103 national standards organizations) Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe correspondent members - (43 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hong Kong, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Swaziland, Togo, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Palestine Liberation Organization subscriber members - (9) Antigua and Barbuda, Burundi, Cambodia, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Honduras, Lesotho, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
International Organization of the French-speaking World OIF note - name changed from Agency of Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT) in 1997 established - 20 March 1970 aim - founded around a common language to promote and spread the cultures of its members and to reinforce cultural and technical cooperation between them members - (55) Albania, Andorra, Belgium, Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Canada - New Brunswick, Canada - Quebec, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, France, French Community of Belgium, Gabon, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Moldova, Monaco, Morocco, Niger, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam observers - (13) Armenia, Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Mozambique, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement ICRM established - 1928 aim - to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS; formerly League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies or LORCS) in peacetime National Societies - (182 countries); note - same as membership for International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
International Telecommunication Union ITU established - 17 May 1865 set up as the International Telegraph Union; 9 December 1932 adopted present name; effective - 1 January 1934; affiliated with the UN - 15 November 1947 aim - to deal with world telecommunications issues; a UN specialized agency members - (191) includes all UN member countries except East Timor, Palau (190 total); plus Holy See
International Trade Union Confederation ITUC note - its predecessors were the Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the World Confederation of Labor (WCL) established - 3 November 2006 aim - to promote the trade union movement members - (306 affiliated organizations in the following 153 countries) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bonaire, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Curacao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Islamic Development Bank IDB established - 15 December 1973 by declaration of intent; effective - 12 August 1974 aim - to promote Islamic economic aid and social development members - (55 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
Latin American Economic System LAES note - also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA) established - 17 October 1975 aim - to promote economic and social development through regional cooperation members - (27) Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela
Latin American Integration Association LAIA note - also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI) established - 12 August 1980; effective - 18 March 1981 aim - to promote freer regional trade members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (26) China, Corporacion Andina de Fomento, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, EC, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latin America Economic System, Nicaragua, Organization of American States, Panama, Pan-American Health Organization, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Nations Development Program, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
League of Arab States LAS note - also known as Arab League (AL) established - 22 March 1945 aim - aim - to promote economic, social, political, and military cooperation members - (21 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency MIGA established - 12 April 1988 aim - encourages flow of foreign direct investment among member countries by offering investment insurance, consultation, and negotiation on conditions for foreign investment and technical assistance; a UN specialized agency members - (168) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Comoros, Cuba, Djibouti, Iraq, Kirabati, North Korea, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro, Nauru, NZ, Niger, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Somalia, Tonga, Tuvalu
Nonaligned Movement NAM established - 1-6 September 1961 aim - to establish political and military cooperation apart from the traditional East or West blocs members - (116 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda,The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization observers - (15) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvadore, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Paraguay, Serbia, Ukraine, Uruguay guests - (23) Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
Nordic Council NC established - 16 March 1952; effective - 12 February 1953 aim - to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental cooperation members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden observers - (3) the Sami (Lapp) local parliaments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden
Nordic Investment Bank NIB established - 4 December 1975; effective - 1 June 1976 aim - to promote economic cooperation and development members - (8) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Estonia, Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden
North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA established - 17 December 1992 aim - to eliminate trade barriers, promote fair competition, increase investment opportunities, provide protection of intellectual property rights, and create procedures to settle disputes members - (3) Canada, Mexico, US
North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO established - 4 April 1949 aim - to promote mutual defense and cooperation members - (26) Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, UK, US
Nuclear Energy Agency NEA note - also known as OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established - 1 February 1958 aim - to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; associated with OECD members - (28) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US
Nuclear Suppliers Group NSG note - also known as the London Suppliers Group or the London Group established - 1974; effective - 1975 aim - to establish guidelines for exports of nuclear materials, processing equipment for uranium enrichment, and technical information to countries of proliferation concern and regions of conflict and instability members - (45) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US observer - (1) European Commission (a policy-planning body for the EU)
Organization for Democracy and Economic Development GUAM note-acronym standing for the member countries, Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Moldova; formerly known as GUUAM before Uzbekistan withdrew in 5 May 2005 established - 7 June 2001 aim - commits the countries to cooperation and assistance in social and economic development, the strengthening and broadening of trade and economic relations, and the development and effective use of transport and communications, highways, and related infrastructure crossing the boundaries of the member states members - (4) Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD established - 14 December 1960; effective - 30 September 1961 aim - to promote economic cooperation and development members - (30) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US special member - (1) EC
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE note - formerly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) established 3 July 1975 established - 1 January 1995 aim - to foster the implementation of human rights, fundamental freedoms, democracy, and the rule of law; to act as an instrument of early warning, conflict prevention, and crisis management; and to serve as a framework for conventional arms control and confidence building measures members - (56) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan partners for cooperation - (11) Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Mongolia, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons OPCW established - 29 April 1997 aim - to enforce the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction; to provide a forum for consultation and cooperation among the signatories of the Convention members (countries that have ratified the Convention) - (181) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Djibouti, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe signatory states (countries that have signed, but not ratified, the Convention) - (6) The Bahamas, Burma, Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Guinea-Bissau, Israel
Organization of African Unity OAU see African Union
Organization of American States OAS established - 14 April 1890 as the International Union of American Republics; 30 April 1948 adopted present charter; effective - 13 December 1951 aim - to promote regional peace and security as well as economic and social development members - (35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (60) Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, EU, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, Yemen
Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries OAPEC established - 9 January 1968 aim - to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry members - (11) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia (suspended), UAE
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States OECS established - 18 June 1981; effective - 4 July 1981 aim - to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation members - (7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines associate member - (2) Anguilla, British Virgin Islands
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC established - 14 September 1960 aim - to coordinate petroleum policies members - (11) Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela
Organization of the Islamic Conference OIC established - 22-25 September 1969 aim - to promote Islamic solidarity in economic, social, cultural, and political affairs members - (56 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization observers - (11) AU, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic, ECO, LAS, Moro National Liberation Front, NAM, Russia, Thailand, Turkish Muslim Community of Kibris, UN
Pacific Community SPC note - formerly known as the South Pacific Commission (SPC) established - 6 February 1947; effective - 29 July 1948 aim - to promote regional cooperation in economic and social matters members - (26) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna; note - UK withdrew in January 2005
Pacific Islands Forum PIF note - formerly known as South Pacific Forum (SPF) established - 5 August 1971 aim - to promote regional cooperation in political matters members - (16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu observers - (4) East Timor, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Tokelau
Paris Club Paris Club established - 1956 aim - to provide a forum for debtor countries to negotiate rescheduling of debt service payments or loans extended by governments or official agencies of participating countries; to help restore normal trade and project finance to debtor countries members - (19) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
Partnership for Peace PFP established - 10-11 January 1994 aim - to expand and intensify political and military cooperation throughout Europe, increase stability, diminish threats to peace, and build relationships by promoting the spirit of practical cooperation and commitment to democratic principles that underpin NATO; program under the auspices of NATO members - (23) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Finland, Georgia, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; note - a nation that becomes a member of NATO is no longer a member of PFP
Permanent Court of Arbitration PCA established - 29 July 1899 aim - to facilitate the settlement of international disputes members - (105) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Rio Group RG note - formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established NA December 1986; composed of the Contadora Group and the Lima Group established - 1988 aim - to consult on regional Latin American issues members - (20) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, CARICOM, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
Secretariat of the Pacific Communities SPC established - 6 February 1947 aim - to serve island development in 22 Pacific countries; to develop technical assistance and professional, scientific, and research support; to build planning and management capability members - (26) America Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, NZ, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, US, Wallis and Futuna
Shanghai Cooperation Organization SCO established - 15 June 2001 aim - to combat terrorism, extremism, and separatism; to safeguard regional security through mutual trust, disarmament, and cooperative security; and to increase cooperation in political, trade, economic, scientific and technological, cultural, and educational fields members - (6) China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan observer - (4) India, Iran, Mongolia, Pakistan
South American Community of Nations CSN established - 9 December 2004 aim - to coordinate common policies regarding multilateral organizations, to integrate physical infrastructure, and to consolidate the merger of CAN and Mercosur members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (2) Mexico, Panama
South Asia Co-operative Environment Program SACEP established - January 1983 aim - to promote regional cooperation in South Asia in the field of environment, both natural and human, and on issues of economic and social development; to support conservation and management of natural resources of the region members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC established - 8 December 1985 aim - to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation members - (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka observers - (5) China, EC, Japan, South Korea, US
South Pacific Forum SPF note - see Pacific Island Forum
South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement Sparteca established - 1981 aim - to redress unequal trade relationships of Australia and New Zealand with small island economies in the Pacific region members - (16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
Southeast European Cooperative Initiative SECI established - 6 December 1996 aim - to encourage cooperation among participating states and to facilitate their integration into European structures members - (12) Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey observers - (15) Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Canada, France, Georgia, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Ukraine, UK, US
Southern African Customs Union SACU established - 11 December 1969 aim - to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters members - (5) Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland
Southern African Development Community SADC note - evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) established - 17 August 1992 aim - to promote regional economic development and integration members - (14) Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Southern Cone Common Market Mercosur note - also known as Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur) established - 26 March 1991 aim - to increase regional economic cooperation members - (5) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela associate members - (5) Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru; note - Mexico is to become an associate member by the end of 2006
United Nations UN established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to maintain international peace and security and to promote cooperation involving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems constituent organizations - the UN is composed of six principal organs and numerous subordinate agencies and bodies as follows: 1) Secretariat 2) General Assembly: Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UN AIDS), International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), Preparation Commission for the Nuclear-Ban-Treaty Operation ((CTBTU), United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UN-Habitat), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Office of Project Services (UNOPS), United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), United Nations System Staff College (UNSSC), United Nations University (UNU), World Food Program (WFP) 3) Security Council: International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), United Nations Compensation Commission, United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB), United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI), United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO), United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS), United Nations Monitoring and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC), United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG), United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), and United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) 4) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): Commission for Social Development, Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Commission on Narcotics Drugs, Commission on Population and Development, Commission on Science and Technology for Development, Commission on Sustainable Development, Commission on the Status of Women, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Center for Secretariat of Investment Disputes (ICSID), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), International Labor Organization (ILO), International Maritime Organization (IMO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Multilateral Investment Geographic Agency (MIGA), Statistical Commission, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Forum on Forests, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Universal Postal Union (UPU), World Health Organization (WHO), World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), World Tourism Organization (WToO), and World Trade Organization (WTO) 5) Trusteeship Council (inactive; no trusteeships at this time) 6) International Court of Justice (ICJ)
United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization, UN International Children's Emergency Fund established - 11 December 1946 aim - to help establish child health and welfare services members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD established - 30 December 1964 aim - to promote international trade members - (193) all UN members plus Holy See
United Nations Development Program UNDP established - 22 November 1965 aim - to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social development members (executive board) - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force UNDOF established - 31 May 1974 aim - to observe the 1973 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council members - (7) Austria, Canada, India, Japan, Nepal, Poland, Slovakia
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNESCO established - 16 November 1945; effective - 4 November 1946 aim - to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture members - (191) includes all UN member countries except Liechtenstein, Montenegro, and Singapore (188 total); plus Cook Islands and Niue associate members - (6) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Macau, Netherlands Antilles, Tokelau
United Nations Environment Program UNEP established - 15 December 1972 aim - to promote international cooperation on all environmental matters members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
United Nations General Assembly established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to function as the primary deliberative organ of the UN members - (192) all UN members are represented in the General Assembly
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR established - 3 December 1949; effective - 1 January 1951 aim - to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find permanent solutions to refugee problems members (executive committee) - (70) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Holy See, Hungary, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia
United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIDO established - 17 November 1966; effective - 1 January 1967 aim - UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development especially among the members members - (172) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Brunei, Canada, Estonia, Iceland, Kiribati, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Samoa, San Marino, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, US
United Nations Institute for Training and Research UNITAR established - 11 December 1963 adoption of the resolution establishing the Institute; effective - 24 March 1965 aim - to help the UN become more effective through training and research members (Board of Trustees) - (18) Belgium, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Ghana, Japan, Kuwait, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, US; note - the UN Secretary General can appoint up to 30 members
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo UNMIK established - 10 June 1999 aim - to promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo; to perform basic civilian administrative functions; to support the reconstruction of key infrastructure and humanitarian and disaster relief note - gives civilian support only; works closely with NATO Kosovo Force (KFOR)
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon UNIFIL established - 19 March 1978 aim - to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces, and assist in reestablishing Lebanese authority in southern Lebanon; established by the UN Security Council members - (11) Belgium, China, Finland, France, Ghana, India, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Spain
United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan UNMOGIP established - 24 January 1949 aim - to observe the 1949 India-Pakistan cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council members - (8) Chile, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Italy, South Korea, Sweden, Uruguay
United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara MINURSO established - 29 April 1991 aim - to supervise the cease-fire and conduct a referendum in Western Sahara; established by the UN Security Council members - (25) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, China, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, El Slavador, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Sri Lanka, Uruguay
United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea UNMEE established - 31 July 2000 aim - to monitor the cessation of hostilities members - (39) Algeria, Austria, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, India, Iran, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Ukraine, US, Uruguay, Zambia
United Nations Mission in Liberia UNMIL established - 19 September 2003 aim - to support the cease-fire agreement and peace process, protect UN facilities and people, support humanitarian activities, and assist in national security reform Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Sweden, Togo, Ukraine, UK, US, Zambia
United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone UNAMSIL established on 22 October 1999; aim was to to cooperate with the Government of Sierra Leone and the other parties to the Peace Agreement in the implementation of the agreement; to monitor the military and security situation in Sierra Leone; to monitor the disarmament and demobilization of combatants and members of the Civil Defense Forces (CFD); to assist in monitoring respect for international humanitarian law; mandate ended 31 December 2005; members were Bangladesh, Bolivia, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Ukraine, UK, Uruguay, Zambia
United Nations Mission in the Sudan UNMIS established - March 2005 aim - to support implementation of the comprehensive Peace Agreement by Monitoring and verifying the implementation of the Cease Fire Agreement, by observing and monitoring movements of armed groups, and by helping disarm, demobilizing and reintegrating armed bands members - (59) Australia, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, China, Croatia, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherland, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor UNMISET established on 17 May 2002 to provide assistance to structures critical to public security and to assist in the development of law enforcement agencies; to contribute to extenal security; members were Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Denmark, Fiji, Jordan, Malaysia, Mozambique, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Sweden; completed its mandate 20 May 2005
United Nations Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission UNMOVIC note - formerly known as United Nations Special Commission for the Elimination of Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction (UNSCOM) established - December 1999 aim - to identify, account for, and eliminate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and the capacity to produce them commissioners - (16) Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, UN Department for Disarmament Affairs, France, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia, Senegal, Ukraine, UK, US
United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia UNOMIG established - 24 August 1993 aim - to verify compliance with the cease-fire agreement, to monitor weapons exclusion zone, and to supervise CIS peacekeeping force for Abkhazia; established by the UN Security Council members - (26) Albania, Austria, Bangladesh, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Jordan, South Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay
United Nations Operation in Burundi ONUB established - 21 May 2004 aim - to support and help implement the efforts undertaken by Burundians to restore lasting peace and bring about national reconciliation members - (30) Algeria, Belgium, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Malawi, Mali, Nambia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Senegal, South Africa, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Yemen
United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire UNOCI established - 27 February 2004 aim - to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties of the peace agreement signed by them in January 2003 members - (41) Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Chad, China, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, The Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, India, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Moldova, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Tanzania, Togo, Turkey, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Yemen
United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo MONUC established - 30 November 1999 aim - to establish contacts with the signatories to the cease-fire agreement and to plan for the observation of the cease-fire and disengagement of forces members - (51) Algeria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, Uruguay, Zambia
United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus UNFICYP established - 4 March 1964 aim - to serve as a peacekeeping force between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus; established by the UN Security Council members - (7) Argentina, Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, UK, Uruguay
United Nations Population Fund UNFPA note - acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for Population Activities established - July 1967 aim - to assist both developed and developing countries to deal with their population problems members (executive board ) - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East UNRWA established - 8 December 1949 aim - to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees members (advisory commission) - (22) Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, EC, Egypt, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, UK, US
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development UNRISD established - 1963 aim - to conduct research into the problems of economic development during different phases of economic growth members - no country members, but a Board of Directors consisting of a chairman appointed by the UN secretary general and 10 individual members
United Nations Security Council UNSC established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to maintain international peace and security permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US nonpermanent members - (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly; Belgium (2007-08), Republic of the Congo (2006-07), Ghana (2006-07), Indonesia (2007-08), Italy (2007-08), Panama (2007-08), Peru (2006-07), Qatar (2006-07), Slovakia (2006-07), South Africa (2007-08)
United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti MINUSTAH established - 30 April 2004 aim - to stabilize Haiti in many areas for at least six months members - (19) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Jordan, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, US, Uruguay
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization UNTSO established - June 1948 aim - to supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; currently supports timely deployment of reinforcements to other peacekeeping operations in the region as needed; initially established by the UN Security Council members - (23) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, US
United Nations University UNU established - 3 December 1973 aim - to conduct research in development, welfare, and human survival and to train scholars members - (24 members of UNU Council and the Rector are appointed by the Secretary General of the United Nations and the Director General of UNESCO)
Universal Postal Union UPU established - 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947; effective - 1 July 1948 aim - to promote international postal cooperation; a UN specialized agency members - (189) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, and Palau (188 total); plus Holy See; note - includes the following dependencies or areas of special interest: Australia (Norfolk Island), China (Hong Kong, Macau), Denmark (Faroe Islands, Greenland), France (French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Guadeloupe, Iles Eparses, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna), Netherlands (Aruba, Netherlands Antilles), NZ (Cook Island, Niue, Tokelau), UK (Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey; Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn, Saint Helena, Turks and Caicos), US (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Virgin Islands)
West African Development Bank WADB note - also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD); is a financial institution of WAEMU established - 14 November 1973 aim - to promote regional economic development and integration regional members - (9) Central Bank of West African States, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo international/nonregional members - (6) African Development Bank, Belgium, European Investment Bank, France, Germany, People's Bank of China
West African Economic and Monetary Union WAEMU note - also known as Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA) established - 1 August 1994 aim - to increase competitiveness of members' economic markets; to create a common market members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo
Western European Union WEU established - 23 October 1954; effective - 6 May 1955 aim - to provide mutual defense and to move toward political unification members - (10) Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK associate members - (6) Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Turkey associate partners - (7) Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia observers - (5) Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden
World Confederation of Labor WCL established - 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968 aim - to promote the trade union movement members - (105 national organizations) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe
World Customs Organization WCO note - began as the Customs Cooperation Council (CCC) established - 15 December 1950 aim - to promote international cooperation in customs matters members - (171) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
World Federation of Trade Unions WFTU established - 3 October 1945 aim - to promote the trade union movement members - (125 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization
World Food Program WFP established - 24 November 1961 aim - to provide food aid in support of economic development or disaster relief; an ECOSOC organization members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
World Health Organization WHO established - 22 July 1946; effective - 7 April 1948 aim - to deal with health matters worldwide; a UN specialized agency members - (193) includes all UN member countries except Liechtenstein (191 total); plus Cook Islands and Niue
World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO established - 14 July 1967; effective - 26 April 1970 aim - to furnish protection for literary, artistic, and scientific works; a UN specialized agency members - (184) includes all UN member countries except East Timor, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu (182 total); plus Holy See
World Meteorological Organization WMO established - 11 October 1947; effective - 4 April 1951 aim - to sponsor meteorological cooperation; a UN specialized agency members - (188) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Montenegro, Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Tuvalu (179 total); plus Aruba, British Caribbean Territories, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Hong Kong, Macau, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, and Niue
World Tourism Organization UNWTO established - 2 January 1975 aim - to promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic development, international understanding, and peace members - (150) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members - (7) Aruba, Flanders, Hong Kong, Macau, Madeira Islands, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico observers - (1 plus Palestine Liberation Organization) Holy See, Palestine Liberation Organization
World Trade Organization WTO note - succeeded General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) established - 15 April 1994; effective - 1 January 1995 aim - to provide a forum to resolve trade conflicts between members and to carry on negotiations with the goal of further lowering and/or eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers members - (150) Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, EC, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe observers - (31) Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Belarus, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cape Verde, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Holy See, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Montenegro, Russia, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Serbia, Seychelles, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tonga, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Yemen; note - with the exception of the Holy See, an observer must start accession negotiations within five years of becoming observers; Montenegro and Serbia each sent observers
Zangger Committee ZC established - early 1970s aim - to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT) members - (36) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US observers - (1) EC


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